SNAPCHIP-AKT PATHWAY ACTIVATION
24 samples & 8 replicates
• • Akt-1 total & P-Ser473
• • Akt-2 total & P-Ser474
• • Akt-3 total & P-Ser472
• Akt P-Thr308
• • mTOR total & P-Ser2481
• • S6 total & P-Ser235/6
The SnapChip is perfectly suited to quickly and efficiently study the Akt pathway. The cross reaction-free, multiplex platform allows for a unique combination of assays, such as isoforms and phosphospecific antibodies, side-by-side.
About Akt Pathway
Akt is a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases (Protein Kinase B) that includes AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3. Akt resides in the cytosol in an inactive conformation, until the cell is stimulated leading to the activation of PI3K. Activation of PI3K converts plasma membrane phospholipids PIP2 to PIP3, leading to the recruitment of Akt to the membrane. Akt is then activated by phosphorylation by PDK1 and multiple catalytic proteins. To a lesser extent, Akt activation can occur trough other tyrosine or serine/threonine kinases, in response to heat shock or following an increase in calcium concentration. Once active, Akt translocates to the cytosol and nucleus, where it regulates (inhibitory or stimulatory) a wide range of proteins involved in critical cellular processes.
The Akt activation pathway regulates many targets involved in a variety of human diseases, making it a pathway of interest in medical research.
Cell Survival & Apoptosis
Akt can promote proliferation, cell survival and block apoptosis by transcription regulation of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic genes or by direct phosphorylation/inhibition of pro-apoptotic proteins. Thereby, down-regulation of AKT serves as an important strategy for tumor suppressor.
Cell Cycle Progression
Akt promotes cell cycle progression (G1-S phase) by preventing cyclin D1 degradation (through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3), by increasing protein synthesis (through indirect activation of mTORC1) and by regulating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors and Foxo transcription factors.
By phosphorylating and interacting with cytoskeletal components and regulators, Akt is involved in actin polymerisation and stabilisation, but it can also promote cell migration via remodelling.
The Akt pathway promotes the translocation of glucose transporters to the plasma membrane for glucose uptake and increased glycogen synthesis via GSK3 inhibition. Genetic variations in the pathway are also associated with the development of type 2 diabetes as AKT indirectly down-regulates the insulin receptor.
Cancer & Angiogenesis
The Akt pathway is involved in cancer as it promotes characteristics of cancer cells like aerobic glycolysis, cell migration and survival. Indeed, aberrant activation is often associated with malignancy and genetic defects have been identified in many types of cancer. Also, being downstream of VEGF, the Akt pathway contributes to the formation of new blood vessels, promoting the survival and growth of tumour cells.
Lysosome Biogenesis & Autophagy
By direct phosphorylation, Akt downregulates TFEB, a master controller for lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. Inhibition of Akt pathway is a key element in lysosomal storage diseases and treatment research.